Wednesday, April 16, 2014

4.16.2012 Civil War Notes

      16, One Hoosier's experience at the Battle of Shiloh; the letter of Private William Richardson, Company H, 25th Indiana Regiment, to his uncle

Pittsburgh Landing, Tenn., April 16th, 1862

Mr. Thomas Jones:

Respected Uncle -- With delight do I grasp my pen in order to write you a few lines to let you know how I am getting along -- how I enjoy a soldier's life and how time is passing off with me. Also to let you know of our great battle that we have had here.

I am in good health and have generally enjoyed good health, though I have for a few days past been troubled with toothache considerably. The health of the soldiers is not very good at present. The diarrhea is very bad among the boys. One of Co. E died last night and was buried this morning. Cousin Davy Turnham is as fat as a bear and came through the fight all right. I too came out without a scratch.

This was a terrible battle that we had here. Old Gen. Beauregard chose to attack us on last Sabbath morning a week ago, April 6, 1862, and did accordingly about 7:00 in the morning. We never knew anything of an attack till we heard the cannon begin to roar, and then the rebels were already inside of our lines. I think that our General was a little careless by not having out picket guards in order to give us sufficient time to prepare for an attack. But instead of this our General let the rebels advance upon us in columns of thousands, whip and cut up our men before we could get out and get the movements of their flanks. We had to march some two miles, regiment after regiment, before we could open fire upon them; and by the time we could all get out and get the run of their movements, they had our men retreating. Therefore I think they had superior advantage over us.

Our regiment met the rebels and fought them bravely, but as they had a superior force to us we were obliged to retreat, but according to order we fell back a few rods and formed again and gave the scoundrels a terrible fight. We succeeded in driving them back a little, but they came again upon us in much greater numbers, and we had to retreat inch by inch almost till about 4:00 in the evening when we got reinforced by a few thousand. We then made another charge upon them and made them fall back about a mile. This ended the fight for the night. During the night, Gen. Buell arrived with a part of his forces and placed them, regiment after regiment, in front of our columns, all ready to renew the fight. At daylight we moved forward about a mile when we met the rebels ready for battle again; but inless than a hour, we had them getting back faster than they advanced the day before. But they fought like mad dogs. They would fall back a little and rally again, and fight desperately. I just thought that they would fight us till they were all killed. They would come up in such good order. We would flank them and we sometimes would nearly have them surrounded, but they would fight their way out. But they fought more bravely than they would have done had they not drunk so much whiskey mixed with gunpowder. The wounded rebels nearly all had whiskey in their canteens as I was told. We drove them until about 4:00 in the evening when the stampede became general with them, and they all took leg bail, each man for himself. Our cavalry followed them until dark, when they returned with several prisoners. Many of the rebels threw their guns and knapsacks away, and I expect are at their homes very well satisfied. I believe I would be at least if I were a rebel. They have returned back to Corinth, where they formerly were-about 18 miles from here. Their loss is said to be about 15,000 and ours 10,000. Oh uncle, this was a terrible battle. I have heard thunder storms and other great noises, but nothing to compare with the noise that we made here. It was a continual roaring. It put me in mind of a steamboat letting off steam with one clap of thunder right after another continuously for two days. I could see the fire blazing from the cannon and one dense fog of smoke continuously rising all the time. I tell you if this was not enough to make a man feel a little scary I do not know what would. In many places one could stand and see the dead and wounded lying so think that he could count 30 or 40 without moving out from his tracks. Some with their brains shot out, some with their whole heads shot off, some with legs and arms shot off and such a groaning was never heard before I suppose as was heard here. An in many places the trees and bushes are cut off like grass almost. Many large trees are cut down by cannon balls. Oh I do not see how as many of us escaped as well as we did. I will tell you now of those that were killed and wounded although I suppose you have heard before this time. Capt. Baltsman of Co. A, 1st Lieut. Brickett of Co. C and 1st Lieut. Patterson of Co. G were killed. These were all the commissioned officers in our regiment that were killed. Henry Morris, Henry Wright, E. B. Wilson, Geo, McKinsey and I J. Vanwinkle of Co. E were killed; also Thomas B. Handy and Chandley Redfield of Co. H and Samuel Smith of Co. K were killed. Several others of different companies were killed. Our Lieutenant Colonel was wounded slightly in the leg. Will Jones was wounded in the leg so badly that his leg will have to come off.

Your true friend.

William Richardson

Letter of William Richardson[1]

 

 

 

        16, Skirmish near Eagleville

APRIL 16, 1863.-Skirmish near Eagleville, Tenn.

REPORTS.

No. 1.-Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger, U. S. Army.

No. 2.-Brig. Gen. William T. Martin, C. S. Army.

No. 1.

Report of Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger, U. S. Army.

FRANKLIN, April 16, 1863.

GEN.: Steedman says he had sharp skirmishing south of Harpeth to-day; killed some and took some prisoners, from whom he learns that Unionville has been re-enforced from Shelbyville, and that they intend attacking him in the morning. Perhaps they will give us both a trial.

G. GRANGER, Maj.-Gen.

 

No. 2.

Report of Brig. Gen. William T. Martin, C. S. Army.

HDQRS. MARTIN'S CAVALRY DIV., WHEELER'S CORPS, April 17, 1863.

MAJ.: Yesterday a skirmish occurred between the reserve of Col. [Josiah] Patterson's pickets on the Chapel Hill and Union pike. The enemy in force (about 300) advanced upon the pickets and were driven back 3 miles. We lost none in killed, but 4 were decoyed into an ambuscade and captured. The enemy lost a number of horses, and are supposed to have lost several killed. They were carried from the field. Col. P. [Patterson] reports that his officers and men, only 80 in number, behaved gallantly. The enemy's force (one regiment) is at College Grove, and is thought to have infantry supports. Col. P. thinks the party is foraging. On this pike our scouts and a small scouting party of the enemy had a skirmish in sight of our picket lines; no casualties reported. I have ordered Capt. [J. H.] Wiggins to turn in two of his old pieces as soon as the two howitzers arrive (now expected), and thus to save the old guns, as I have doubts about being able to carry them off in case of an advance.

Very respectfully,

WILL. T. MARTIN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 261-262.

 

 

        16, A suggestion for recycling

Taking into consideration the limited supply of leather, would it not be practicable to save the skins of the horses slain in battle, and those that die in service? A large number of hides could be saved in this way, and it is to be hoped that the proper authorities will consider this matter promptly.

Fayetteville Observer, April 16, 1863.

 

 

        16, "…I suffered horribly in anticipation of trouble." Smuggling goods to the Confederate army through Federal lines in Shelby County; a page from the diary of Belle Edmondson

March, Wednesday 16, 1864

Went up Street directly after Breakfast to finish a little job I forgot on yesterday. At one o'clock Mrs. Facklen, Mrs. Kirk and I began to fix my articles for smugling [sic], we made a balmoral of the Grey cloth for uniform, pin'd [sic] the Hats to the inside of my hoops-tied the boots with a strong list, letting them fall directly in front, the cloth having monopolized the back & the Hats the side-All my letters, brass buttons, money, &c in my bosom-left at 2 o'clock to meet Anna at Mr. Barbie's-started to walk, impossible that-hailed a hack-rather suspicious of it, afraid of small-pox, weight of contrabands ruled-jumped in, with orders for a hurried drive to Cor[ner of] Main & Vance-arrived, found Anna not ready, had to wait for her until 5 o'clock, very impatient-started at last-arrived at Pickets, no trouble at all, although I suffered horribly in anticipation of trouble. Arrived at home at dusk, found Mr. Wilson & Harbut, gave them late papers and all news. Mrs. Harbut here to meet her Bro. bro't [sic] Mr. Wilson a letter from Home in Ky. Worn out. 8 yds. Long cloth, 2 Hats, 1 pr Boots, 1 doz. Buttons, letters, &c. 2 Cords, 8 tassels.

Laura, Beulah & Tippie Dora, all in.

Diary of Belle Edmondson

 

 

        16, Cherokee Indians Take Advantage of Amnesty Program

Knoxville, Tenn., March 15.

~ ~ ~

Peace has been ratified with the North Carolina Cherokees. Those recently captured say the were induced to take up arms and the belief the were fighting for the United Stated government.

Two were permitted to go in search of the band and represent to facts to their Chief (Too-kannic.) Thirty of the tribe have since come in and accepted the amnesty.

~ ~ ~

Boston Herald, March 16, 1864. [2]

 

 

        16, Parade and badges of mourning for man and horse prescribed in Memphis in honor of Abraham Lincoln

HDQRS. CAVALRY DIV., DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., April 16, 1865.

COMDG. OFFICER, FIRST BRIGADE:

COL.: In memory of the immortal man murdered upon the 14th instant, the troops of this command will parade mounted to-morrow morning, the 17th instant, at 10 a. m. promptly, upon the open ground at the south extension of Shelby street. Each officer and enlisted man will wear upon his left arm and upon his saber hilt the appropriate badge of morning. Upon the forehead of each horse and attached to the bridle will be fastened a festoon, one-half of black carpe and one-half of white cambric, each three inches wide and one yard long. Sabers will be carried in reserve when the command "march" is given.

By order of Bvt. Brig. Gen. E. D. Osband:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 375

 

 

 

        16, Observing Lincoln's death in Pulaski

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 51. HDQRS. 6TH DIV., CAVALRY CORPS, MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Pulaski, Tenn., April 16, 1865.

In honor to the memory of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth President of the United States, of whose death official notice has been received, the general commanding directs that on to-morrow all drills and other duties except those which are indispensable, such as picket and interior guard, be suspended throughout this command; that religious services be held in every regiment having a chaplain; that the public offices, all stores, shops and other places of business and amusement at this post be closed, and that the day be scarcely observed, both by citizens and soldiers, in a manner becoming the mournful occasion. The provost-marshal and the officer of the day for the post are enjoined to see that this order is duly observed. This order to be read at the head of every regiment and detached company in the command at the dress parade of this day.

E. T. WELLS, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 368.

 



[1] As cited in: http://www.indianainthecivilwar.com/letters.htm, with permission from Cyndee Wagner.

[2] As cited in PQCW.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX

 


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX

 

        16, One Hoosier's experience at the Battle of Shiloh; the letter of Private William Richardson, Company H, 25th Indiana Regiment, to his uncle

Pittsburgh Landing, Tenn., April 16th, 1862

Mr. Thomas Jones:

Respected Uncle -- With delight do I grasp my pen in order to write you a few lines to let you know how I am getting along -- how I enjoy a soldier's life and how time is passing off with me. Also to let you know of our great battle that we have had here.

I am in good health and have generally enjoyed good health, though I have for a few days past been troubled with toothache considerably. The health of the soldiers is not very good at present. The diarrhea is very bad among the boys. One of Co. E died last night and was buried this morning. Cousin Davy Turnham is as fat as a bear and came through the fight all right. I too came out without a scratch.

This was a terrible battle that we had here. Old Gen. Beauregard chose to attack us on last Sabbath morning a week ago, April 6, 1862, and did accordingly about 7:00 in the morning. We never knew anything of an attack till we heard the cannon begin to roar, and then the rebels were already inside of our lines. I think that our General was a little careless by not having out picket guards in order to give us sufficient time to prepare for an attack. But instead of this our General let the rebels advance upon us in columns of thousands, whip and cut up our men before we could get out and get the movements of their flanks. We had to march some two miles, regiment after regiment, before we could open fire upon them; and by the time we could all get out and get the run of their movements, they had our men retreating. Therefore I think they had superior advantage over us.

Our regiment met the rebels and fought them bravely, but as they had a superior force to us we were obliged to retreat, but according to order we fell back a few rods and formed again and gave the scoundrels a terrible fight. We succeeded in driving them back a little, but they came again upon us in much greater numbers, and we had to retreat inch by inch almost till about 4:00 in the evening when we got reinforced by a few thousand. We then made another charge upon them and made them fall back about a mile. This ended the fight for the night. During the night, Gen. Buell arrived with a part of his forces and placed them, regiment after regiment, in front of our columns, all ready to renew the fight. At daylight we moved forward about a mile when we met the rebels ready for battle again; but in less than a hour, we had them getting back faster than they advanced the day before. But they fought like mad dogs. They would fall back a little and rally again, and fight desperately. I just thought that they would fight us till they were all killed. They would come up in such good order. We would flank them and we sometimes would nearly have them surrounded, but they would fight their way out. But they fought more bravely than they would have done had they not drunk so much whiskey mixed with gunpowder. The wounded rebels nearly all had whiskey in their canteens as I was told. We drove them until about 4:00 in the evening when the stampede became general with them, and they all took leg bail, each man for himself. Our cavalry followed them until dark, when they returned with several prisoners. Many of the rebels threw their guns and knapsacks away, and I expect are at their homes very well satisfied. I believe I would be at least if I were a rebel. They have returned back to Corinth, where they formerly were-about 18 miles from here. Their loss is said to be about 15,000 and ours 10,000. Oh uncle, this was a terrible battle. I have heard thunder storms and other great noises, but nothing to compare with the noise that we made here. It was a continual roaring. It put me in mind of a steamboat letting off steam with one clap of thunder right after another continuously for two days. I could see the fire blazing from the cannon and one dense fog of smoke continuously rising all the time. I tell you if this was not enough to make a man feel a little scary I do not know what would. In many places one could stand and see the dead and wounded lying so think that he could count 30 or 40 without moving out from his tracks. Some with their brains shot out, some with their whole heads shot off, some with legs and arms shot off and such a groaning was never heard before I suppose as was heard here. An in many places the trees and bushes are cut off like grass almost. Many large trees are cut down by cannon balls. Oh I do not see how as many of us escaped as well as we did. I will tell you now of those that were killed and wounded although I suppose you have heard before this time. Capt. Baltsman of Co. A, 1st Lieut. Brickett of Co. C and 1st Lieut. Patterson of Co. G were killed. These were all the commissioned officers in our regiment that were killed. Henry Morris, Henry Wright, E. B. Wilson, Geo, McKinsey and I J. Vanwinkle of Co. E were killed; also Thomas B. Handy and Chandley Redfield of Co. H and Samuel Smith of Co. K were killed. Several others of different companies were killed. Our Lieutenant Colonel was wounded slightly in the leg. Will Jones was wounded in the leg so badly that his leg will have to come off.

Your true friend.

William Richardson

Letter of William Richardson[1]

 

 

 

        16, Skirmish near Eagleville

APRIL 16, 1863.-Skirmish near Eagleville, Tenn.

REPORTS.

No. 1.-Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger, U. S. Army.

No. 2.-Brig. Gen. William T. Martin, C. S. Army.

No. 1.

Report of Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger, U. S. Army.

FRANKLIN, April 16, 1863.

GEN.: Steedman says he had sharp skirmishing south of Harpeth to-day; killed some and took some prisoners, from whom he learns that Unionville has been re-enforced from Shelbyville, and that they intend attacking him in the morning. Perhaps they will give us both a trial.

G. GRANGER, Maj.-Gen.

 

No. 2.

Report of Brig. Gen. William T. Martin, C. S. Army.

HDQRS. MARTIN'S CAVALRY DIV., WHEELER'S CORPS, April 17, 1863.

MAJ.: Yesterday a skirmish occurred between the reserve of Col. [Josiah] Patterson's pickets on the Chapel Hill and Union pike. The enemy in force (about 300) advanced upon the pickets and were driven back 3 miles. We lost none in killed, but 4 were decoyed into an ambuscade and captured. The enemy lost a number of horses, and are supposed to have lost several killed. They were carried from the field. Col. P. [Patterson] reports that his officers and men, only 80 in number, behaved gallantly. The enemy's force (one regiment) is at College Grove, and is thought to have infantry supports. Col. P. thinks the party is foraging. On this pike our scouts and a small scouting party of the enemy had a skirmish in sight of our picket lines; no casualties reported. I have ordered Capt. [J. H.] Wiggins to turn in two of his old pieces as soon as the two howitzers arrive (now expected), and thus to save the old guns, as I have doubts about being able to carry them off in case of an advance.

Very respectfully,

WILL. T. MARTIN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 261-262.

 

 

        16, A suggestion for recycling

Taking into consideration the limited supply of leather, would it not be practicable to save the skins of the horses slain in battle, and those that die in service? A large number of hides could be saved in this way, and it is to be hoped that the proper authorities will consider this matter promptly.

Fayetteville Observer, April 16, 1863.

 

 

        16, "…I suffered horribly in anticipation of trouble." Smuggling goods to the Confederate army through Federal lines in Shelby County; a page from the diary of Belle Edmondson

March, Wednesday 16, 1864

Went up Street directly after Breakfast to finish a little job I forgot on yesterday. At one o'clock Mrs. Facklen, Mrs. Kirk and I began to fix my articles for smugling [sic], we made a balmoral of the Grey cloth for uniform, pin'd [sic] the Hats to the inside of my hoops-tied the boots with a strong list, letting them fall directly in front, the cloth having monopolized the back & the Hats the side-All my letters, brass buttons, money, &c in my bosom-left at 2 o'clock to meet Anna at Mr. Barbie's-started to walk, impossible that-hailed a hack-rather suspicious of it, afraid of small-pox, weight of contrabands ruled-jumped in, with orders for a hurried drive to Cor[ner of] Main & Vance-arrived, found Anna not ready, had to wait for her until 5 o'clock, very impatient-started at last-arrived at Pickets, no trouble at all, although I suffered horribly in anticipation of trouble. Arrived at home at dusk, found Mr. Wilson & Harbut, gave them late papers and all news. Mrs. Harbut here to meet her Bro. bro't [sic] Mr. Wilson a letter from Home in Ky. Worn out. 8 yds. Long cloth, 2 Hats, 1 pr Boots, 1 doz. Buttons, letters, &c. 2 Cords, 8 tassels.

Laura, Beulah & Tippie Dora, all in.

Diary of Belle Edmondson

 

 

        16, Cherokee Indians Take Advantage of Amnesty Program

Knoxville, Tenn., March 15.

~ ~ ~

Peace has been ratified with the North Carolina Cherokees. Those recently captured say the were induced to take up arms and the belief the were fighting for the United Stated government.

Two were permitted to go in search of the band and represent to facts to their Chief (Too-kannic.) Thirty of the tribe have since come in and accepted the amnesty.

~ ~ ~

Boston Herald, March 16, 1864. [2]

 

 

        16, Parade and badges of mourning for man and horse prescribed in Memphis in honor of Abraham Lincoln

HDQRS. CAVALRY DIV., DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., April 16, 1865.

COMDG. OFFICER, FIRST BRIGADE:

COL.: In memory of the immortal man murdered upon the 14th instant, the troops of this command will parade mounted to-morrow morning, the 17th instant, at 10 a. m. promptly, upon the open ground at the south extension of Shelby street. Each officer and enlisted man will wear upon his left arm and upon his saber hilt the appropriate badge of morning. Upon the forehead of each horse and attached to the bridle will be fastened a festoon, one-half of black carpe and one-half of white cambric, each three inches wide and one yard long. Sabers will be carried in reserve when the command "march" is given.

By order of Bvt. Brig. Gen. E. D. Osband:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 375

 

 

 

        16, Observing Lincoln's death in Pulaski

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 51. HDQRS. 6TH DIV., CAVALRY CORPS, MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Pulaski, Tenn., April 16, 1865.

In honor to the memory of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth President of the United States, of whose death official notice has been received, the general commanding directs that on to-morrow all drills and other duties except those which are indispensable, such as picket and interior guard, be suspended throughout this command; that religious services be held in every regiment having a chaplain; that the public offices, all stores, shops and other places of business and amusement at this post be closed, and that the day be scarcely observed, both by citizens and soldiers, in a manner becoming the mournful occasion. The provost-marshal and the officer of the day for the post are enjoined to see that this order is duly observed. This order to be read at the head of every regiment and detached company in the command at the dress parade of this day.

E. T. WELLS, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 368.

 



[1] As cited in: http://www.indianainthecivilwar.com/letters.htm, with permission from Cyndee Wagner.

[2] As cited in PQCW.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX

 

Tuesday, April 15, 2014

4.15.2014 Tennessee Civil War Notes


        15, Governor Isham G. Harris' reply to President Lincoln's request for Tennessee militia to support the Union

Executive Department

Nashville, Tennessee

April 15, 1861

Hon. Simon Cameron

Secretary of War

Washington, D.C.

Sir:

Your dispatch of the 15th Inst. informing me that Tennessee is called upon for two Regiments of Militia for immediate service is received.

Tennessee will not furnish a single man for purposes of coercion but 50,000 if necessary for the defense of our rights and those of our southern brothers.

Isahm G. Harris, Governor of Tennessee

Messages of the Governors of Tennessee, Vol. 5.[1]

 

 

        15, Campbell county Confederates and Bloodhounds

The Dogs of War.

Among the astounding developments of the last few months is the following advertisement taken from the Memphis Appeal. Its brands and ear-marks are well known in this community who have had a chance to read it in papers nearer home:

"Bloodhounds Wanted.

"We, the undersigned, will pay five dollars per pair for fifty pairs of well bred hounds, and fifty dollars for one pair of thoroughbred bloodhounds that that will take the track of a man. The purpose for which these dogs are wanted is to chase the infernal, cowardly Lincoln bushwhackers of East Tennessee and Kentucky (who have the advantage of the bush to kill and cripple many good soldiers) to their tents and capture them. The said hounds must be delivered at Captain Hanmer's Livery Stable by the 10th of December next, where a mustering officer will be present to muster and inspect them.

"F. N. McNairy,

"F. H. Harris

"Camp Grinfort, Campbell co., Tenn., Nov. 16. [1861]

"P.O.—Twenty dollars per month will also be paid for a man who is competent to train and take charge of the above named dogs."

Gallant Col. McNairy! Chivalric Capt. Harris! Brave, noble, manly! Five dollars a pair for "fifty pair of well bred hounds"—fifty dollars for "one pair of thoroughbred bloodhounds that will take the track of a man!" Capt. Hanmer's Livery Stable! Recruiting service most honorable! Headquarters most fitting! Recruits most select; none but well bred and thoroughbred need apply! Time is precious—opportunity short. It is now the 16th of November; by the 10th of December they must be delivered or the door of Capt. Hanmer's Livery Stable will be forever shut! Thrice happy they who come in time—lucky dogs! A mustering officer, kennel inspector awaits your coming, to welcome you into the ranks of the chivalry, the wellbred; the thoroughbred! the flower of our youth! Paradise of caninity! No common dogs there! Curs and spaniels and terriers and pointers and setters and the "bull pups" shut out! They can't come in! Tray, blanche, and sweetheart, be off! Get out tiger! You cuff! twenty dollars a month, secesh money to a competent drill officer! Hardee's tactics, dogmatically displayed! Magnificent corps, fifty pair of well drilled hounds, that is a hundred, rank and file! One pair of thorough bred bloodhounds, that is two, for the staff! One hundred and two dogs, besides Colonel McNairy and Capt. Harris, one hundred and four in all; not counting Captain Hanmer, not the mustering officer, nor the drill master, "competent to train and take charge of the above named dogs!" Go where the field of glory waits you! Not damsels distressed, nor martyred saints, nor the Holy Sepulchre, shall exhaust your noble championship! Yours is a sublimer mission, a far higher pursuit; "to chase the infernal, cowardly Lincoln bushwhackers of East Tennessee and Kentucky!" Fortunate if you catch them; thrice fortunate if they don't catch you! Whatever laurels you win, by Cerberus, save your dog skin! Greatly will your puissant leader value that; if it were not for aught else it will make him a winter cap and some boots to save his own! But the poor, cowardly East Tennesseans, alas! alas! Their offence is rank, it smells! Taking advantage of the rush not only to kill, but to cripple "many good soldiers!" There is no hope for such miscreants and cowardly too, not thorough bred they, not even well bred! common, very! Woe betide them! chased to their tents, captured, dragged to Camp Crinfork, Campbell county and then—horror of horrors! O murderous McNairy, O maddened McNairy; O mighty McNairy; O monstrous McNairy! O marvellous McNairy, O mysterious McNairy, O multitudinous McNairy, O magnanimous McNairy, O mellifluous McNairy, O meritorious McNairy, O merciful McNairy, O Mister McNairy, O McNairy dry so! dog on it, don't!

Ha! do you say you are misunderstood? that you didn't mean the four-footed kind when you advertised for dogs; that when you said fifty pair of well-bred hounds you had an eye to the hundred members of the Legislature; that Capt. Hanmer's stable is nothing more than the building on Capitol Hill; the mustering officer to muster and inspect them, nobody less than the run-away Governor (Eureka, Eureka, Eureka,) the "one pair of thorough-bred bloodhounds," the two chief member of his Military Board (a second Daniel); and the man "competent to train and take charge of the above named dogs," found in the illustrious Major General of all our forces. Poor, miserable men of East Tennessee! How wretched is their lot! Well might they say, in view of this calamity impending, if you please, let it be the other kind of dogs!

Nashville Daily Union, April 15, 1862. [2]

 

 

 

        15, "We found about five thousand rebels sick and wounded." A letter from the Third Ohio Regiment

Camp Andrew Jackson, Near Nashville, Tenn., Mar. 15, 1862

**We left Bowling Green and marched….That day we crossed the line of Kentucky and Tennessee. Upon arriving at camp, our company had only four men, a small squat out of 93 men. Even our stoutest men gave out, but 1, a small boy, with heavy knapsack always managed to keep up. We laid out that night again, having nothing but the canopy of heaven to shelter us. Persons who have never tried it, can not imagine what an effect it has in making him robust and strong. We left the next morning, and marched 28 miles to a point four miles from Nashville. Loomis' artillery was ordered to the river, to protect our steam boats at Nashville, kept there to ferry us across. The rebels had not all left when the artillery went down-they sneaked up in the night, and burned two of the steamboats.[3] We left next morning and went into Nashville. It took us about three hours before we could cross the river. We found all the bridges burned as usual. Upon our arrival in the town we found all the stores closed, and business suspended, the streets crowded with people, and almost every building had a red flag upon it, which denotes a hospital of the sick. We found about five thousand rebels sick and wounded. The principal diseases that appear to reign in the Southern army are typhoid fever, measles and diarrhea. We only stopped a short time in town. We marched 3 miles out of and are encamped on a beautiful tract of land. We captured about five million dollars' worth of property, such as provisions, &c., which the reels had left, and a citizen informed me that we did not capture one-tenth part of what they had here, as they had a years' provisions laid in store, and to prevent us from getting all, they gave the citizens for miles a round, their smoke houses full of feat, and threw some I the river. We found a cannon buried in the ground about 7 miles from our camp,- A squad of secesh came within four miles out our camp ad took 40 mules and some men, and Gen'l Dumont's horse. We got all the men and mules back and not the General's horse. We took prisoners, killed two and put the others to flight.

**The Graves of the venerable Andrew Jackson and James K. Polk are about 18 miles from our camp. Some of the regiments and artillery went out to see the graves of those two honored men, and fired 22 guns over the graves. They have to most splendid monuments.

**We expect a great fight here before long, we are looking out for rebels that left Manassas to come this way, and show us a fight. The 3d is always ready whenever they are called upon to do their part. I think we will have no little trouble in cleaning the rebels out of Tennessee. The report is they intend to make a stand at Chattanooga, about 120 miles from here.

Henry

Columbus Gazette, April 18, 1862. [4]

 

 

 

        15, Captured letter to home giving information on the strength of Army of Tennessee

IN CAMP NEAR TULLAHOMA, TENN., April 15, [1863]

DEAR BROTHER:

* * * *

Our army at this place is Hardee's corps, with Breckinridge's and Cleburne's divisions; Breckinridge's composed of Adams', Brown's, Preston's, and B. H. Helm's brigades. Helm commands the Kentucky brigade, composed of the Second, Fourth, Sixth, and Ninth Kentucky Regt. [sic]'s, whose loss at the recent battle at Murfreesborough was heavier than any other brigade. It was commanded then by Brig. Gen. Roger [W.] Hanson. Cleburne's division is composed of Lucius [E.] Polk's, Liddell's, Johnson's, and Wood's brigades, making an aggregate of about 19,000 men. Polk's corps (Cheatham's, McCown's, and Withers' divisions) are at Shelbyville, about 15 miles west of this place. The two corps contain about 35,000 or 40,000 effective infantry. Morgan's command is at McMinnville, about 30 miles northeast, with 6,000 or 8,000 cavalry; Wharton's north, toward Murfreesborough, with about 2,000 at Beech Grove; Forrest and Van Dorn at Columbia with about 10,000, operating against Nashville and its envious and very successfully. Thus, you see, our army is not so small as some suppose it to be, nor have I overestimated the figures.

The troops are in good spirits, and are confident of success when an engagement takes place, and, if the weather continues good, we expect it soon, although the enemy have not yet advanced from their stronghold at Murfreesborough. Morgan's (assorted) command are still in Southeastern Kentucky. Pegram has met with indifferent success in his late raid there. The health of our army is good.

Your brother.

[Captain] C. F. SANDERS[5]

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 773

 

.

        15, Report to President Jefferson C. Davis on the condition of the Army of Tennessee

RICHMOND, VA., April 15, 1863.

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President:

SIR: In obedience to your orders, dated March 12, 1863...I proceeded to...Tullahoma, Tenn., the headquarters of the army [of Tennessee], and...I have the honor to submit the following report:

At Tullahoma I found Gen. J. E. Johnston in command of the army, and reported to him. I stated to him my orders, and offered them for his inspection but he declined to examine them, and very kindly offered me any assistance I might wish in procuring full information as to the condition of the army. He informed me that he had temporary command of the army, during Gen. Bragg's absence with his sick wife at Winchester. I immediately conveyed to Gen. Bragg my intention to pay him my respects before my departure, but was prevented from doing so there by his arrival in Tullahoma, where I had a full conversation with him the day I left. I am indebted to both Gen.'s Johnston and Bragg for their courtesy during my stay, as well as to Gen.'s Hardee and Polk.

On Monday, March 23, I reviewed Lieut.-Gen. Hardee's corps at Tullahoma. I afterward, on the same day, saw Brig. Gen. B. R. Johnson drill his brigade, and witnessed a match or trial battalion drill between the Seventeenth Tennessee Regt. [sic] (Col. Marks) and the Thirteenth Louisiana Regt. [sic] (Col. R. L. Gibson) and Twentieth Louisiana Regt. [sic] (Col. Reichard), consolidated, and commanded by Lieut.-Col. Von Zinken. The Tennessee regiment was remarkable for fine stature, manly bearing, and steadiness of movement, but the rapidity and accuracy with which the Louisianians [sic] executed every maneuver at the double-quick was unequaled.

On Tuesday, March 24, by invitation I accompanied Gen. Johnston to Manchester, 12 miles to the right, and on the next day reviewed the Kentucky Brigade there, commanded by Gen. Helm. These troops afterward went through battalion drill, by regiments, and in the afternoon had a brigade drill. Their performance was rapid, yet precise, their appearance tough and active, and they will compare for efficiency with any brigade in the Confederate Army.

On Saturday, I arrived in Shelbyville, and on Monday, March 30, I reviewed Lieut.-Gen. Polk's corps, by divisions. Gen. Wither's division, composed principally of Mississippians, was the best clad I saw in the army. I was struck by their size and made material bearing. In Gen. McCown's division some dismounted Arkansas and Texas troops showed marks of neglect in many important points. This army is in a high of efficiency, well clad and armed, and marked with every evidence of good discipline, high courage, and capacity for endurance.

There is vast improvement in this army since I inspected it last June at Tupelo; and while great credit is due to the high soldierly qualities of the eminent officers by whom he is surrounded, much is also due to the peculiar talents for organization of the commander, Gen. Bragg, and to his laborious attention to the details of his command. This is not an opinion, but the testimony of all with whom I came in contact. The army lacks no physical element of success.

Attention is called to the two tri-monthly reports of March 10 and 20, furnished me by the assistant adjutant-general, marked B.[6] That of March 20 shows an aggregate of 97,090 men, and an effective total of 49,447 men, of which 15,616 are cavalry. The great accession to the numbers of the army is attributed by Gen.'s Johnston and Bragg to the energy and vigorous system of Brig.-Gen. Pillow and the conscript bureau conducted by him. The fear was expressed that, if his operations were discontinued, the strength of the army would begin to decline. Gen. Bragg estimated the recruits sent forward by him [(Gideon J.) Pillow] at 10,000 and by the enrolling officers at 19 men. He stated that 1,200 men had been obtained in Chattanooga alone. He made some caustic remarks on the camps of instructions, and asked for a vigorous inspection of them.

In the office of Col. Brent, assistant adjutant-general, I found a large number of reports of the battles of Murfreesborough, furnished by brigadier-generals and their subordinates. On inquiry, Col. Brent did not seem aware that it was proper and necessary, to complete the record, that these should be sent to their final depository-the Adjutant Gen.'s Office, at Richmond. I called Gen. Bragg's attention to this fact, and requested Col. Ewell to see that they were forwarded.

The camps were clean and well laid, and the tents made comfortable with many chimneys. The camps will be shifted at the approach of warm weather. There is little sickness; what does exist is chiefly ague and diarrhea.

Particular attention is called to the report of Col. Oladowski, chief of ordnance, marked Exhibit C. Its information is valuable. It shows, 41,673 small-arms in the hands of the army, and 4,206 in depot, from which deduct 600 recently issued. Forty rounds of ammunition are kept in cartridge-boxes, and 60 in wagons with the brigades. There are 125 field pieces of all kinds. Their loss is generally ascribed to the shortness of the scabbards. Complaint was made of certain cartridges for Enfield rifles as being too large, and fouling the guns. Col. Oladowski says these are being rapidly replaced by others. He says they were made at Atlanta, but Maj. Wright, of the Atlanta Arsenal, told me that they were made at Selma. He showed me the report of a board experimenting with them, which pronounced the Atlanta cartridge not too large, not well greased. This he attributes to the smooth surface of the ball permitting the absorption of the grease by the paper. Capt. Finnie, at the Augusta Arsenal, confirmed this statement, and recommended the grooved ball. Deficiency of bees-wax in the lubricator is also a great disadvantage.

 The transportation of the army is in tolerable condition, when the difficulties under which it labors are considered. Most of the brigades had good pole stables, and the condition of the animals seemed largely influenced by the care taken in building these. The horses and mules are suffering from the want of long forage, which cannot be obtained. I may here state that the artillery horses are also in bad condition for want of long forage. The cavalry horses are to be doing better, but did not come under my own eye.

The report of Maj. M. B. McMicken, acting chief quartermaster of the army, is filed herewith marked Exhibit D. He states the total number of wagons to be 2,276. He estimates that the forage east of the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad will be exhausted by April 12, and west of that road by May 23. Gen. Polk thinks it will last until July. Gen. Hardee's corps is now being supplied from North Alabama. The report states that the army is fully supplied with clothing, and has 6,000 suits in depot, but that shoes are wanted, and requisitions have been made for 10,000 pairs, which will last through April. Maj. Stevenson in his letter to me filed herewith states that 4,000 pairs are in depot. Attention is called to his two letters filed herewith, marked Exhibit E.

Maj. Cunningham clothing quartermaster at Atlanta, informs me that he is employing about 40 shoemakers, and makes 150 pairs of shoes a day, and that with 60 additional shoemakers he could make 500 pairs daily. I examined his establishment. The leather is rolled by machinery, and the sides split likewise, which effects a great saving. The soles are cut out by a machine, and all the sewing done by sewing-machines. The shoes present a neat appearance, and can be sold for $450 per pair. Government agents have been sent into Kentucky with Gen. Pegram to buy leather. I respectfully refer to the letters of Maj. Stevenson and to the communication of Maj. Cunningham, filed herewith, marked Exhibit F, for details of the productions and capabilities of the agencies at work in this portion of the Confederacy. The remark was made to me in the army by observant persons that the clothing was of better material this year than in the winter of 1861--'62. The men were tolerably well shod.

The question of subsistence has engaged Your Excellency's earnest attention. It is the vital one with this army. I had full and free conversations with Gen.'s Johnston, Bragg, Polk, and Hardee on this subject, and am free to say the prospect is very far from satisfactory. I omit the complaints of mismanagement and want of forethought and scope laid at this door or that, and will rapidly sum up the various plans, schemes, or suggestions made, some or all of which might be attempted, with modifications.

Before doing so, however, your attention is called to the report of Maj. Isaac Scherck, acting chief of subsistence, dated March 23, 1863, filed herewith, marked Exhibit G, and the table of rations accompanying it. By these the President will perceive that the army is living from hand to mouth, and drawing largely on the reserves. The ration of the men is corn bread and one-half pound of bacon. They get very little beef, but I heard of no grumbling about the rations. Gen. Polk, thought we could, by enterprise in foraging and by a systematic scheduling of the resources of the country, subsist our army on its present line three months or more. No one else thought it possible for so long a time. The supplies are drawn principally from the counties of Giles, Maury, and Williamson, and he thought by pushing our trains up toward Fort Henry a good deal might be got out. One obstacle is the inability to use Confederate money to advantage. It is recommended to allow the use of State money where necessary, and to send forward molasses, which can be advantageously exchanged, 1 gallon for 8 pounds of bacon, and which bring to our lines, even from beyond the enemy's a supply of bacon and which will bring to our lines, even from beyond the enemy's a supply of bacon which neither force nor persuasion can otherwise obtain. Gen.'s Johnston and Bragg rely chiefly for beef on the cavalry expeditions of Gen. Pegram and Col. Cluke into Kentucky, and on similar forays hereafter.

Gen.'s Polk and Hardee also recommended that Messrs. Sam. Tate and Brinkley [?], of Memphis, should be employed to exchange cotton for bacon. Gen. Johnston desires that some more vigorous efforts might be used to get the corn out of Northeastern Mississippi. Last June I engaged the accumulation of this corn in depots as soon as ready for market. Complaints have been made that the quartermasters are preventing its shipment by using the Mobile and Ohio Railroad for the purpose of speculation. Gen. Johnston complained of the summary manner in which Gen. Pemberton dismissed the complaint, without proper investigation.

Some propositions have been made by individuals in Mobile to take the Government vessels there, which it is said Gen. Buckner does not think necessary for harbor defense, and run in meat. The terms of the proposition are before the Government. Government can certainly use and insure her own vessels as safely and cheaply as citizens can. If these vessels are not needed, they might be very usefully employed in running the blockade.

The communication of Maj. J. F. Cumming, purchasing commissary at large is filed herewith marked Exhibit H. It shows on hand, in reserve, 162,000 pounds dried beef, 247,500 pounds pickled beef, 5,267,855 pounds bacon and bulk pork, 600,000 pounds lard, 1,700 barrels of flour, and 3,000 beef-cattle. He discusses the modes of obtaining supplies. Whatever is resolved on in regard to subsistence must be done with promptness and decision. The question will not brook delay or indecision.

Your Excellency's attention is called to the present lines of our army. Gen. Hardee's corps is at Tullahoma, with one brigade 12 miles to the right, at Manchester and with Liddell's brigade at Wartrace, 17 miles in front, and a brigade at Allisona, in the rear; Gen. Polk's corps is at Shelbyville; Maj.-Gen. Wheeler covers the right and front of the army, with his headquarters at McMinnville, and Maj.-Gen. Van Dorn the left, in front of Columbia. Tullahoma is regarded as the central point, but the greater part of the army is to the left of it. It is not the intention or expectation of Gen.'s Johnston and Bragg to await attack there, unless made in front, and this they do not expect. They believe that Rosecrans will attempt to pass our flank, most probably our right flank; in which case we would go out and attack him.

Gen. Bragg seems to have been governed in his selection of Tullahoma as his chief point of defense by the convergence there of several roads. Gen. Hardee preferred Decherd, as stronger and less easily turned, but Tullahoma having been determined on, under orders from Gen. Bragg, marked out the line of the fortifications. I examined these fortifications, which are a line of slight redoubts extending in a semicircle from the Fayetteville to the Manchester road. Our advantage of ground is not very obvious, although the engineer in charge assured me it does exist, and the earthworks are low redoubts, not flanked by rifle-pits, except for some 20 yards or so. To my eye they seemed too far in advance of the crest of the hills. On the slope an abatis of heavy felled timber extends 1,500 feet to the front of each redoubt, making a zone of that width about 3 or 4 miles in length. The works are either too strong or too weak. They are too weak to rely upon, and too strong to abandon to the enemy. Much labor has been wasted on them, unless they shall be put in condition to be held by a small force against a larger one. Gen. Bragg says heavy entrenchments demoralize our troops, and that he would go forward to meet the enemy, in which case that abatis would be an obstruction, to say the least.

I did not learn from any of the generals of any projected movement or of any battle-field preferred on which to meet an advance of the enemy, but they appeared to have an impression that if the enemy does not advance on us, it will be necessary for us to make an advance, perhaps, into Kentucky with the army, to obtain subsistence. This was not stated, however, in direct and explicit terms.

Gen. Johnston wished your attention called to the matter, before mentioned of the quartermasters in Mississippi, and also to the fact that the limits of his department embraced two armies that could not co-operate, and that he receives no intelligence from Gen. Pemberton, who ignores his authority, is mortified at his command over him, and receives his suggestions with coldness or opposition. The distance prevents his giving orders. He thought the discipline of Gen. Pemberton's army not very good, and wishes a speedy and thorough inspection of his district. He requested me to extend my inspection to that district. I informed him of the limitation of my orders; that you wish for speedy information on the matters already investigated, and that Col. Ives had gone there, though I did not know under what orders. He sent me a letter to you embodying this request, which I file with this report.

These are the results of my observations in the Army of Tennessee.

* * * * [sic]

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. PRESTON JOHNSTON, Col. and Aide-de-Camp.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 757-761.

 

 

14, "I have got with a good mess of boys 8 of us they are not as swearing blackguarding set at all with Stewart excepted."

Prospect Tennessee April 14, 1864

Dear Father

I received your letter last night which is the second one that I have had from you since I left. If I had one each day I should not get tired of opening them & reading them if they are from Iowa they are very welcome visitors but like angels visits few & far between I wrote a letter to you yesterday but after I received this I thought that I must write again I have wrote quiet a number to different persons in the country but have received no answers We get mail here every day It is then taken to headquarters & each company's mail given to that company's orderly& then distributed by him. You Perhaps remember Stewart the man that went with Vanness when he thrashed our grain some years ago he stays in our shanty & is very sick it is probably the measles that is coming upon him if that proves to be the case he will of course removed to the hospital until he recovers. James Campbell & Uriah A Wilson have both had them but they have got about well again I received the postage stamps that you sent me but they were so stuck together that I had to steam them to get them separated they should be doubled face to face to prevent them sticking. You said something about Leonard Parker having sold out did he ever say anything to you about some money that he owed to me for rail making I made him 1880 rails & he only paid me for 1500 when he counted them. There was a deep snow & he did not find them all & he promised if he found the rest he would hand the balance of the money to you I know that the rails are there & he should have paid to you 3 dollars & 80 cents perhaps he has but the next time you write let me know I have got with a good mess of boys 8 of us they are not as swearing blackguarding set at all with Stewart excepted They are quiet the reverse more inclined to study & improve their mental faculties we have had several debating schools in our shanty since we came here, & we study grammar some & arithmetic one of our mess sent to Fowler & Wells & got a couple of Phonographic Books & we are just beginning to see a dawn of sense in that branch We have had them only 4 or 5 days & were entirely ignorant of it all of us so we are not advanced in reading or writing it yet. Altogether we have received the name of the literary squad which sounds blackguarding shanty just below us which is known by the name of Gambling Saloon I have just been down to the guard house & saw one from the aforesaid place with his arms tied & fastened in a standing position & I thought that I would sooner be studying grammar or Frognogra [phy][7] by which they try to ridicule us than to be in his place for running the picket lines or some other misdemeanor. I am perfectly well & hope that this may find you all the same

Charles B Senior

Co B 7 Iowa Info Via NashvilleTennessee not volunteers but infantry or the letters may go to the 7 cavalry

Charles B Senior

Senior Correspondence.

 

 

        15, Skirmish near Greeneville

APRIL 15, 1864.-Skirmish near Greeneville, Tenn.

Report of Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield, U. S. Army, commanding Department of the Ohio.

KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 16, 1864.

The Third Indiana Cavalry, reconnoitering beyond Greeneville yesterday, surprised a party of rebel cavalry, killed 10 and captured 15, inclosing their leader, Reynolds. Nothing new relative to the movements of the enemy.

J. M. SCHOFIELD, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 669.

 

The notorious guerrilla Reynolds, and his command, was surprised by a party of National cavalry, near Knoxville, Tenn., and ten of them killed. Reynolds and fifteen others were captured, together with their horses, equipments and arms.

Rebellion Record, Vol. 8, p. 64

 

 



[1] Messages of the Governors of Tennessee, 1857-1869, Vol. 5, (Nashville: Tennessee Historical Commission, 1959), photocopy of original between pp. 272-273. See also: OR, Ser. III, Vol. I, p. 81.

[2] As cited in: http://www2.uttyler.edu/vbetts

.

[3] Most likely a reference to the February 26, 1862 Confederate reconnaissance led by John Hunt Morgan to and about Nashville that included the burning of but one steamboat, the Minna Tonka.

[4] As cited in PQCW.

[5] Cleburne's division: Sanders' Company Tennessee Cavalry (Buckner Guards). See OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 873.

[6] See OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 718 for Return of March 20, 1863.

[7] Meaning unknown. Perhaps the photography of frogs?

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX