James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456
27, Letter from R. J. C. Gailbreath [C. S. A.] in Bristol, Tennessee, to his wife Mariah Gailbreath, near Gainesborough, relative to railroad transportation, the first battle of Bull Run, and righteousness of the Southern cause
Bristol, Sullivan County, Tennessee
July 27th, 1861.
Dear Wife and Children-
I again embrace the pleasure of writing to you & as Ink [sic] is scares amongst us, you will pardon me for making this impression with pencil.
I can inform you, [sic] that I am in excellent health, as well as the other boys from your neighborhood.
We left Camp Trousdale on Sunday the 21st. Inst. and arrived her on Thursday the 25, [sic] making 4 days and nights travel by Railroad, [sic] passing through Nashville, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Greenville, [sic] Jonesboro, and other places of minor importance.
Crossing the Tennessee and other smaller Rivers, [sic] on Bridges, [sic] passing the Cumberland Mountains through a gap and tunnel and running under the Frowning [sic] brow of the Iron Mountains [sic] hundreds of Miles [sic] amid the most delightful and Majestic like Cenery, [sic] the Eye of Man ever beheld, in spring the beholder with a deep reverence for the Infinite [sic] wisdom of him [sic] that made us and everything. Could it have been that our thoughts had not occasionally strayed from the cenery [sic] around us and found a resting place, [sic] The Hearth at Home, [sic] where our wives and Children, [sic] with their sweet and lovely Faces, [sic] and the many items of Interest [sic] that bound us to them.
Had it not been for a thought of the Blood, [sic] Death, [sic] and carnage before us, of which I will write on another page, the trip would have been delightful.
No accident of a serious nature occurred until we were leaving Knoxville, when one of our Company, a son of Joseph Law, by the name of Don. F. in attempting to jump the Train, [sic] fell under the Train, [sic] cutting his leg smooth into, [sic] just below the left knee. We carried him into the warehouse where the Seargant [sic] cut it off again just above the knee. I carried his foot and leg in my hand from the Railroad [sic] to the Warehouse, [sic] with a shoe and a sock and a part of the Breeches [sic] leg on it-We left him there and his brother to wait on him, but learned this Morning [sic] that he has since died.
We are within a half mile of the Virginia line, connecting with Washington County sick, in that State, where the State [sic] line crosses the Railroad-There is [sic] two Flagpoles, [sic] one in Virginia, and one on the Tennessee line, and since the decision of Tennessee [to secede and join the Confederacy] the two Flags [sic] have been tied together.
While I am writing, Colonel Newman's Regiment, among which is the Granville Company, [sic] has arrived here from old Camp Trousdale, and while they March through our Camps with Marshal [sic] Music, [sic] [they] had a Warlike [sic] appearance. I stopped to shake hands and to help the other boys to Holow. [sic] They were mighty glad to see us again.
Yesterday we received order to move to Lynchburg, Virginia, and as there was a scarcity of Cars [sic] there was only Seven Companies that got off, and we, with two other Companies [sic] was left-after they got up 15 Miles [sic] into Virginia, They [sic] got a Telgraph [sic] dispatch to come back, and as they are just getting into Camps [sic] again I must stop again, to tell the Howdy Do [sic]-We were as glad to see them as if they had been gone a week.
Last Night Five [sic] of our Boys [sic] caught up with us, Bill among them-They looked like they could stand the Fight [sic] first rate.
As I promised to write more about the Big Fight Manassas [sic] I will now give you all the news as we have it. I have just been down to Town [sic] (Woodrow, Virginia), and red the Richmond Examiner, and give it to you. The Southerners had 30,000 men Commanded [sic] by Beauregard [sic], Davis and Johnston. The Yankees had 65,000 men Commanded [sic] by Scott, McDowell and Patterson. Fight [sic] commenced at 8 O'clock-Morning [sic] (Sunday) about the hour we left Camp Trousdale and lasted all day. The Southerners [sic] lost 500 killed and 1,500 wounded-Then the Northern Men [sic] lost 21,000 killed [sic] and lost 1,000 prisoners-Our side took 63 Cannons [sic] 1,000 Stands of Arms, [sic] Horses [sic] and provisions and etc. worth a Million of Dollars [sic]-Enough to Furnish [sic] the Southern Army for 12 Months. From the General [sic] detail of the battle it was the greatest Battle [sic] fought since the Memerable [sic] Battle [sic] of Waterloo-If Jeff Davis had of had [sic] Ten Thousand Men [sic] more, who was Fresh [sic] and not exhausted, he says he could have taken Washington City in 10 Hours [sic] after the battle-Our side run [sic] them within a few mile [sic] of the Potomac River-Got old Scott's Carriage, [sic] and his walking stick and he run [sic] 40 miles, got 2 members of the Yanks [sic] Congressmen as prisoners, and in fact, whipped them shamefully -- For full particulars I refer you to the News [sic] Paper. [sic]
I do not know where we will go from here. It is rumored that we will go to the Cumberland Gap, some say to Missouri. Governor Jackson of Missouri was here Yesterday [sic] in Company [sic] with Senator Atchinson-They both spoke-Jackson says that he can whip out the Yankees in Missouri if he had Guns-He has gone to Richmond to see Davis. The impression here is that he has gone there to get some of the Guns [sic] we got from the Yankees.
I cannot say now, my Dear Family, [sic] when I will see you again, if ever, but should it be the will of God to cut me off from you, rest assured that you shall never be disgraced by any Conduct [sic] on my part in this War [sic], for you and my Country; [sic] I am willing to do Battle, [sic] and if Fate [sic] be against me, let it be so. Be curageous [sic] and let not private feelings have sway with you, for I believe it is for the Best, [sic] and but performing the Providence of God that this War [sic] is upon us, in other words, it is a Righteous War. [sic]
Take good care of your health, our sweet little Children [sic] raise them up as though they should go, and although the example heretofore set by me to them has not been of that Moral Character [sic] they should have been, Yet [sic] I trust that their superior intelligence will enable them to observe and avoid my errors.
Since writing the above, we have orders to leave immediately for Richmond, and Boys [sic] are bundeling [sic] up to start.
You need not write me until I write again. Give my love to your Mother, [sic] and all the Black Folks, [sic] and to your Friends. [sic]
Should Faith [sic] preserve me, I will see you in May next, if not sooner. May Heaven will it so.
R. J. C. Gailbreath
W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol. 3, pp. 64-65.
27, Skirmish near Manchester
No circumstantial reports filed.
MANCHESTER, July 27, 1862.
Col. J. B. FRY:
* * * *
Forrest appeared before me this morning and made a successful dash upon one of my reconnoitering parties, killing 3 and capturing 15 men. He was apparently withdrawn in the direction of McMinnville. I sent out a strong detachment a short distance to the front to ascertain his whereabouts. We must concentrate a cavalry force sufficient to chase him down before we can get rid of him. Will I be relieved by Gen. Wood? If so, when? I have the flour all safely stored in the depot.
W. S. SMITH, Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 218.
27, Affair near Toone's Station, a.k.a. Lower Post Ferry.
Report of Capt. James J. Dollins, Stewart's Battalion Illinois Cavalry, on the "Affair at Toone's Station, or Lower Post Ferry, July 27, 1862.
GEN.: I am at this place. I reconnoitered the ground where I had the fighting to-day. About 1 p. m. found the enemy's cavalry posted on your side of the river. They are about 200 strong. I learn from a reliable source that some had crossed the river by swimming at Estenaula Ferry, where I destroyed the boats yesterday. I have just seen Gen. McClernand's dispatch to Gen. Ross, saying Maj. Stewart is sent to re-enforce me. After reconnoitering to-day I fell back to Toone's Station, 6 miles. They followed us to within 3 miles of that place.
Maj. Stewart had better come there, as I think their intention is to overpower the guards and burn the cotton at that place. What shall I do? Will wait your orders. All here on hand and will wait a few minutes for an answer. My dead are yet on the field.
JAMES J. DOLLINS, Capt.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt, I, p. 25.
27, Major-General W. T. Sherman seeks cooperation of Memphis municipal authorities in maintaining order in the Bluff City
HDQRS. FIFTH DIVISION, Memphis, Tenn., July 27, 1862.
JOHN PARK, Mayor of Memphis:
SIR: Yours of July 24 is before me and has received, as all similar papers ever will, my careful and most respectful consideration.
I have the most unbounded respect for the civil law, courts, and authorities, and shall do all in my power to restore them to their proper use, viz., the protection of life, liberty, and property.
Unfortunately at this time civil war prevails in the land, and necessarily the military for the time being must be superior to the civil authority, but does not therefore destroy it. Civil courts and executive officers should still exist and perform duties, without which civil or municipal bodies would soon pass into disrespect--an end to be avoided.
I am glad to find in Memphis yourself and municipal authorities not only in existence but in the exercise of your important functions, and I shall endeavor to restore one or more civil tribunals for the arbitrament [sic] of contracts and punishment of crimes which the military authority has neither time nor inclination to interfere with.
Among these, first in importance, is the maintenance of order, peace, and quiet within the jurisdiction of Memphis. To insure this I will keep a strong provost guard in the city, but will limit their duty to guarding public property held or claimed by the United States, and for the arrest or confinement of State prisoners and soldiers who are disorderly or improperly away from their regiments.
This guard ought not to arrest citizens for disorder or common crimes. This should be done by the city police. I understand that the city police is too weak in numbers to accomplish this perfectly, and I therefore recommend that the city council at once take steps to increase this force to a number which, in their judgment, day and night, can enforce your ordinance as to peace, quiet, and order, so that any change in our military dispositions will not have a tendency to leave your people unguarded.
I am willing to instruct my provost guard to assist the police force where any combination is made too strong for them to overcome, but the city police should be strong enough for any probable contingency.
The cost of maintaining this police force must necessarily fall upon all citizens equitably.
I am not willing, nor do I think it good policy, for the city authorities to collect the taxes belonging to the State and county, as you recommend, for these would have to be refunded. Better meet the expenses at once by a new tax on all interested. Therefore if you, on consultation with the proper municipal body, will frame a good bill for the increase of your police force and for raising the necessary means for their support and maintenance, I will approve it and aid you in the collection of the tax. Of course I cannot suggest how this tax should be laid, but I think that it should be made uniform on all interests, real estate and personal property, including money and merchandise. All who are protected should share the expenses in proportion to the interests involved.
I am, with respect, your obedient servant,
W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen., Comdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17. pt II, p. 127.
27, "A Great Mistake."
On yesterday afternoon, Judge M. M. Brien had occasion to chastise a negro [sic] woman, to prevent her abusing a member of his family, when a large mob of negroes [sic] gathered in front of his dwelling and made pretty menacing demonstrations. The provost guard appeared, and after hearing how the matter stood, went their way. But a number of them soon returned and arrested the Judge and presented him before the bar of the Provost Marshal when he was released. Col. Spaulding was not present, but the gentleman officiating in his stead, treated the Judge very courteously, dismissing him with a remark that the time had passed when negroes [sic] could be whipped in this country. [sic] The Judge supposed the guard returned and arrested him at the suggestion of some of the angry negroes [sic] who had assembled near his residence
We would caution the soldier on duty in this city, that it would be wise to pay but little attention to many of the negroes [sic]
Nashville Daily Press, July 27, 1863.
27, Conditions in the Decherd and Winchester and environs
Winchester, July 27th, 1863.
Dear Press: Leaving your city on Thursday [23rd] last by the 6 A.M. train of the N&C Railroad, and being passed free of charge on the strength of a bit of pasteboard kindly furnished by the worthy superintendent Anderson, who is a perfect gentleman, as is also his assistant, I arrived safely at Decherd, after a most delightful trip in company with Mr. Sinsabaus, who is a perfect brick in his own way, and withal very much of a gentleman. At Decherd everything was noise and confusion, what between the puffing and snorting of three or four engines, the rattle and jam of hundreds of government wagons, and the almost incessant braying and screeching of a thousand or more mules, mingled with the shouts and curses of their contraband drivers, the ding to our unpracticed ear was almost intolerable. But it was surprising to witness the rapidity and accuracy with which all government business was despatched [sic] amid this tumult, and in less than one hour the crowd had dispersed, the mountains of rations had disappeared, and but few remained upon the ground except the necessary guard, and an occasional sutler, who were pretty equally divided into two parties, the one bewailing bitterly the loss of his valuable stock through his own foolhardiness in attempting to smuggle contraband goods through under the very eyes of a score of government agents, who long since have learned all the dodges of the cunning craft, and are ever on the alert to pick up and offending army follower, while the remainder were counting already the profits in perspective upon the sale of their edibles and bibibles [sic] to Uncle Sam's nephews, many of whom have just been paid off, and are consequently quite flush.
But it is time that we, too, be moving, and following one of the many long lines of wagons loaded with "grubb [sic]" for the soldiers. We finally arrived at the pretty little town of Winchester, where we found the headquarters of General Rosecrans in a fine large college building. The General himself not being at present here, having been for some time, as you know, in your city, accompanied by his Provost Marshal General, Major Wiles. The present department is under control of Captain Elias Cooper, an efficient officer and a perfect gentleman, who is never absent from his post of duty. Here, too, we find the headquarters of Colonel Wm. Truesdail, Chief of the Army Police, who has labored so assiduously in the discharge of the many duties devolving upon him, as to win for himself the admiration and respect of all true hearted men and patriots. The Colonel himself is not in Nashville, with a view, as I understand, of making some important changes and improvements upon the present police system established by him.
Everything remains quite at this point; the men an officers having by this time been perfectly recruited-all appear to be feeling well, if not better, than before their late tedious and disagreeable march from Murfreesboro. What the next important movement in this section will be, and when made, I can only guess at, and as a mere surmise is not generally considered "reliable information." I shall wait and see, hoping soon to forward you something of more general interest than I am at present to do
Nashville Daily Press, July 29, 1863.
27, The first grand review of U. S. C. T. in Nashville
The grand review of the colored troops in this city took place yesterday afternoon at 4 o'clock. A large concourse of citizens and officers of the army were present to witness the first review of this branch of our service, which has attracted so much attention and comment from all classes. The Reviewing Officer was Brig. Gen. Chetlain, commanding the colored troops of Tennessee. The troops present were the 12th regiment U. S. C. Inf., Col. Thompson; 15th U. S. C. Inf., Col. T. J. Downey; 17th regiment U. S. C. Inf., Col. W. R. Shafter; and 100th regiment U. S. C. inf., Maj. Ford, commanding. The band of the 10th Tenn. Infantry were present and discoursed most beautiful music, and added much to the effect of the review. Col. Thompson, Review Officer present, took command, and right well did he acquit himself. The 12th regiment came upon a special train from section 26, N. W. R. R. To say that the review as good hardly does justice to these gallant troops. We have been an eyewitness of many reviews of veteran troops, but have not witnessed a more creditable review than that of yesterday. The commanders of the different regiment[s] may well feel proud of their commands-and those of our citizens-especially the galvanized portion-missed a grand sight if they were not present; and we would advise them when next an opportunity affords, to be present and see how well some of the sons, grandsons, nephews, &c., of our F. F.'s. acquitted themselves as soldiers of the Union. We trust that these reviews may be frequent hereafter, that our citizens may see that the "nigger" [sic] can and will make as good a soldier as a white man. Gen. Chetlain expresses himself highly gratified with the condition of the troops here, and we can only wish him god speed in his glorious mission.
The different regiments escorted the 12th regiment to the N. W. Railroad depot, and then marched through the streets. We regret to record the fact than an officer of the Army Commis'y [sic] Dep't., so far forgot himself as a soldier and gentleman to give commands to the troops as they passed his office on Cedar street. We trust hereafter that he will discontinue the practice of putting an enemy in his mouth to steal away his brains. We would gladly give an account of the rise and progress of the organization of colored troops in this Department but time will not permit.
Gen. Chetlain and staff, Major Paddock, Inspector General, and Dr. Rush, Medical Inspector, accompany him -- both agreeable and accomplished soldiers and gentlemen. The General leaves for Chattanooga on Friday.
Nashville Daily Times and True Union, July 28, 1864.
27, Treatment of a U. S. C. T. Slave Family in Maury county
Cruel Treatment of the Families of Colored Soldiers by Tennessee Rebels.-A correspondent of the Nashville Times writes the following:
A recital of the wrongs daily inflicted upon the wives and children of colored soldiers in Tennessee is enough to make a human man weep tears of blood! Rebels who are living under the amnesty proclamation-rebels whose crimes against the State have justly forfeited their property and their worthless necks, appear to take fiendish delight in abusing the wives and children of those noble colored men who have enlisted to fight for a Government from which they have heretofore received on injustice. I will give you one case; I might give many. In 1841, Ira Hardison, who resides in Maury County, ten miles east of Columbia, bought a man named Wilson, and from 1841 to 1863, a period of 22 years, Wilson worked faithfully for Hardison without compensation. No man ever had a more faithful or efficient slave. In November, 1863, after giving to Harrison all the best years of his life, Wilson enlisted in the 15th U. S. colored troops, commanded by Col. Donner, and every officer in the regiment can bear testimony to the intelligence, honest and good conduct of Sergeant Wilson. But ever since his enlistment, his wife and children, left in Harrison hands, have been cruelly tormented. A son was driven to work last winter and spring without shoes and almost naked, until he was ready to drop into the grave. A daughter was knocked down last Sabbath a week, kicked and stamped by the rebel brute until her life as almost despaired of. The old scoundrel taunts the mother and children continually about their husband and further being a soldier. As Sergeant Wilson is a very intelligent Christian man, he feels these wrongs keenly, and asks whether the Government for which he has taken up arms has no means of redress, Harrison is raising a fine crop cotton this year, and is boasting of the large sum of money it will yield him.
Daily Evening Bulletin, July 17, 1864. 
27, Military forces placed on duty to guard polls in Benton, Henry, Weakley, Gibson, Lauderdale, Henderson, and Carroll, West Tennessee; Humphreys, Dickson, Stewart, Montgomery, Shelby, Fayette, Williamson, Davidson, Wilson, Sumner, Robertson, Cheatham, Bedford, Lincoln, Marshall, Giles, Maury, Hickman, and Lewis counties in Middle Tennessee
NASHVILLE, TENN., July 27, 1865.
Maj. Gen. GEORGE STONEMAN, Knoxville:
Governor Brownlow having applied to me for a sufficient military force to insure that the approaching elections be conducted legally in certain counties throughout this State, I wish you to send a sufficient force to the election precincts of each of the following counties to be present at the holding of the election for the purpose of enabling legal voters to hand in their votes, and also to insure them protection whenever they choose to challenge the legality of votes of other parties when offered; also to see that the judges of elections conduct them fairly and preserve propriety during the election, viz.,: Benton, Henry, Weakley, Gibson, Lauderdale, Henderson, and Carroll, West Tenn.; Humphreys, Dickson, Stewart, Montgomery, Shelby, Fayette, Williamson, Davidson, Wilson, Sumner, Robertson, Cheatham, Bedford, Lincoln, Marshall, Giles, Maury, Hickman, and Lewis, Middle Tenn. A copy of this has been sent to Gen. Smith to expedite matters. You will please see that the order is executed in the other counties named.
GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 1093.
 This event is not listed in the OR General Index and is referenced only in passing in the following excerpt from official correspondence. The event was called a "dash," which here will be determined to be a skirmish.
 Not found.
 See also: Memphis Union Appeal, July 30, 1862.
 Most likely an abbreviation for "Fighting Forces."
 GALEGROUP - TSLA 19TH CN (San Francisco, CA)
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456
26, Life in a Cumberland Plateau spa
Letter from Beersheba Springs.
Beersheba Springs, July 26, 1861..
Editors Appeal: As there may be many readers of your paper who would be glad to know something of this charming spot, I have concluded to turn reporter and give them such information as I have been able to gather.
I have been at many summer retreats both North and South, but none have pleased me more than Beersheba.
It is situated on the Cumberland mountain, Grundy county, Tenn., seventy miles from Nashville. It derives its name from Mrs. Beersheba P. Cain, who built a cabin here in 1832. Mr. Dugan, who moved to this country in 1805, and who is still alive, first entered the land. From him the property passed through several hands, until it finally became the property of Mr. Armfield, to whose energy and industry many of the present improvements are due. It now belongs to a company of southern gentlemen, who purchased it for fifty or sixty thousand dollars.
If visitors are not satisfied with the arrangements made for their comfort at Beersheba, then they must carry their fastidiousness to a marvelous extent. A purer atmosphere never blessed this earth. You must remember that Beersheba is situated two thousand feet above the level of the sea. That dreadful annoyance, the mosquito, cannot be found here. The thermometer hardly ever exceeds seventy-five degrees. Fires and blankets have been comfortable for the two past nights. The main hotel is situated on the brow of the mountain, commanding an enchanting view of the valley of Collins river, which is from three to six miles wide and eighteen miles long. Its soil is fertile, producing in great abundance wheat, corn, rye, potatoes and vegetables of every kind. I am told that the valley contains numerous sulphur springs.
But let me come back to the springs. Arrangements are made for the accommodation of eight hundred people. The rooms are very nicely fixed, amply provided with pleasant beds, and everything necessary to secure comfort. Unlike many watering places, great attention is paid to cleanliness. There is nothing to be seen offensive to the eye. For the amusement of visitors there are provided billiard rooms, ten pin alleys and riding horses. At night the ball room is open. Everything about the establishment is conducted well.
It is under the particular charge of Mr. Hukil, favorably known on the Mississippi river as one of the most accomplished caterers in America. If any of your readers ever took a trip to New Orleans in the Ingomar or John Simonds, they will agree with me in the opinion that Mr. Hukil in his line is without a superior. As far as eating is concerned, your readers may rest assured that there is no hotel in New Orleans or Memphis possessing greater attractions. There is nothing rough about the establishment. The servants, numbering more than seventy, have been well drilled and are remarkably attentive. I have examined the whole establishment. Every thing is in order. The promenade around the buildings under cover is more than a quarter of a mile in extent. The walks are beautifully laid out. The bathing houses, the washing apparatus, the cooking facilities are as good as one could wish. Mr. Hukil is a gentleman of fine appearance, courteous in his manners, obliging in every respect. He is assisted by Mr. Hurd, a young gentleman formerly of the Memphis packet office company. If a handsome appearance, bland manners and attention to his duties be qualifications for the proper discharge of the duties devolving upon one filling a situation like that of Mr. Hurd, he possesses them in an eminent degree. He anticipates all your wants and studies to make your time pass pleasantly.
The terms of board are $50 per month, children and servants half price. Around the hotel are a number of elegant cottages, owned by persons in Nashville and I was pleased to meet the worthy bishop of Tennessee here. His health is good, and I am told he preaches twice every Sunday at the hotel.
In regard to the springs; the main one is chalybeate, running out of a rock, said to be an excellent tonic. This fountain, together with the freestone spring is about two hundred yards from the hotel accessible by a pleasant road.
In the vicinity of the springs are several objects of curiosity; among them is the stone door, water-falls, caves, etc. I have not as yet paid them a visit. I will try and describe them in my next. Upon the whole I can without any reservation whatever recommend this retreat to the people of Memphis. Gentlemen who are now at Beersheba, and who are familiar with all the hotels in America, pronounce this equal to any. It is a southern enterprise, and this alone ought to induce them to patronize it. The company here is not large, but of the most select character. I have not been introduced to any of the ladies, and therefore can say nothing in regard to them.
Memphis Daily Appeal, July 31, 1861
26, Brigadier-General Grenville M. Dodge initiates confiscation policy for Confederate guerrilla supporters in West Tennessee, General Orders No. 11
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 11. HDQRS. CENTRAL DIV. OF THE MISS., Trenton, Tenn., July 26, 1862.
I. The general commanding has undoubted knowledge that the sympathizers with this rebellion within the limits of this command are aiding in a spies of warfare unknown to the laws and customs of war, the suppression of which calls for more rigorous and decisive measures than have been heretofore adopted. The allowing of bands of guerrillas to encamp in the neighborhood without giving information of the fact, the firing upon pickets, the feeding of parties who are hiding from our forces and the carrying of information to and from the enemy have become matters of daily occurrence. It is therefore ordered-
II. That any neighborhood, town or village that allows marauding bands or guerrillas to remain or camp near them without immediately sending word to the nearest military post will be levied upon, and a certain portion of the property of all known sympathizers of this rebellion than can be used by the U. S. forces, to be determined by the commander of the division, will be taken, and the citizens will be held personally responsible for the acts of the band. Where pickets are fired into the sympathizers of the rebellion being near the place will be arrested and held until the guilty party is brought to fight, and when any injury is done the picket there will be assessed upon the disloyal citizens living near the place an amount not exceeding $10,000, as the commanding general may determine.
III. Citizens who encourage returned soldiers and deserters to hide in the woods and form bands to return to the rebel army will be arrested and held responsible for all depredations committed by these bands; and when it comes to the knowledge of any of the commanders of posts of this command that returned soldiers or deserters are lurking about, hiding and not coming forward as required they will arrest and hold for hostage the nearest disloyal relative to the soldier, such person to be held as hostage till the soldier delivers himself or is delivered up.
IV. Any person, white or black, free or slave, who brings reliable information of guerrilla bands, marauding parties and of citizens who are breaking any provisions of this order, which information proving to be of benefit to the U. S. forces, will receive a liberal reward. If a slave he will be guaranteed against receiving punishment for bringing such information.
By order of Brig. Gen. G. M. Dodge
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 4, pp. 290-291.
26, A private in the 115th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Zeboim Cartter Patten, relates his conversations with Confederate prisoners of war in Franklin environs
* * * *
I converse a good deal with the prisoners while guarding them. They seem to be a very gentlemanly set of men and many of them are intelligent. They say they and the majority of the army are willing to return to their former allegiance if they can be guaranteed their rights under the constitution. They blame their leaders as well as ours of misrepresenting the public sentiments. They are much more intelligent and fair than those [who] were at Camp Butler [Kentucky]. They think we will not be attacked here say they expected to go to Kentucky. They are from Tenn., Miss., and Alabama & belonged to Van Dorn's command but under the immediate command of Forrest....
Diary of Zeboim Cartter Patten, March 26, 1863.
26, 1864 - Skirmish at White's Station
No circumstantial reports filed.
26, Newspaper report on Tennessee Governor W. G. Brownlow's opinion on the fate of African Americans
Gov. W. G. Brownlow, of Tennessee, takes this view of the future of the negro, in a late letter to his Knoxville Whig, upon the presumption, we suppose, that they are to remain among the whites:
["]The negroes, like the Indian tribes, will gradually become extinct, having no owners to care for them, and no owning property in them, the will cease to increase in numbers-cease to be looked after and cultivated-while educated labor will take the place of slave labor, Idleness, starvation, and diseases, will remove a majority of the negroes in this generation. The better class of them will got work and sustain themse.lves[."]
Macon Daily Telegraph, July 26, 1865.
 See also: Soldier's Budget [Humboldt], August 14, 1863.
 Zeboim Cartter Patten Diaries, 1860-1863, TSL&A. [Hereinafter: Patten Diary.]
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456
25, Instructing Memphis Police on Proper Constabulary Etiquette
The Police.-It was with pleasure we yesterday remarked that our newly organized policed indicated great improvement. The vigilance committee and officers are determined to take such steps as shall render them efficient in the performance of their duties. The maintenance of the public peace, the prevention and detection of crime, and the protection of persons and property, are among the responsible duties with which the police are entrusted. In discharging duties so important a more than usual staidness of demeanor and control of temper are required. The requisite of a policeman's active duties is like that of a soldier's-prompt and implicit obedience to lawful orders from those in authority. Sobriety, including an entire absence from drinking places, except when called by duty, as essential. From an address delivered sometime ago by a chief of police to his men, we copy the following, which is well worth of observance. "Under all circumstances and on occasions you must observe a prudent, gentlemanly and obliging behavior. In dealing with persons of every rank and condition in life you must at all times be firm of purpose but kind and conciliatory in temper and disposition. Even to those charged with criminal offenses, you must be guilty of no [illegible] rudeness or unnecessary harshness. Remember always that a happy mixture of resolution, courage and civility constituted a high degree of excellence in every sphere of duty, and are marked characteristics of a good police officer. The habit of smoking while on duty cannot be permitted, not will you be allowed, while on duty, to hold conversation with any one except in relation to matters appertaining to your official duties; and, even in such cases, your conversation should not be protracted beyond the time proper for the accomplishment of the matter in hand. While on duty on your beat, you must not enter any house, either public or private, unless required to do so for the performance of some official duty. In your intercourse with persons with whom your official duty may bring you in contact, you must refrain from using profane, vulgar or indecent language. Whenever called on to exercise official power, do it boldly, decidedly, yet with becoming coolness and moderation, preserving always perfect self-command and control over your temper, and taking no heed of remarks made by excited bystanders, irritating though they be. Cultivate a habit of close observation. Persons especially who are known to be of bad repute, or whose behavior may be such as to awaken suspicion, should be objects of constant watchfulness, that they may know and feel that they are observed by you and that it will be difficult to offend with impunity, or transgress the law and escape detection and consequent punishment. Loitering and lounging on the streets and corners will not be tolerated, but every officer must constantly patrol his beat, observing closely all passers-by, in order that a facility in observing and detecting the evil disposed may be acquired. A proper degree of vigilance and unceasing watchfulness should render extremely difficult the perpetration of crime within the limits of an officer's beat. Where depredations are matters of frequent occurrence within a beat, it furnished ground for a reasonable presumption of negligence, intention, or incapacity on the par of those who may have it in charge, while on the contrary the absence of crime is to be taken and considered as proof of activity and capability. You will be expected to be attentive to the mater of cleanliness of person and dress, and required at all times to preserve a near and officer-like appearance."
Memphis Daily Appeal, July 25, 1861. 
25, Confederate guerrilla raid on Brownsville
No circumstantial reports filed.
Confederates at Brownsville.
Arrest of Cotton Buyers.
$15,000 in Gold Stolen.
Prisoners Taken South.
The Confederate cavalry, numbering about one hundred, suddenly appeared at Brownsville, county seat of Haywood, about daybreak on Friday morning. The hotel was surrounded by the troops, and Messrs. Crisp and Greenwald, cotton buyers, both citizens of this place, were called for. They were immediately arrested, as were also Mr. Ed. Word, of this city, Mr. Ware from Paducah, and two foreign citizens, one of Brownsville, named Solomond [sic], and the other of Haywood.
The citizens of town interfered, and Mr. Word, who had bought no cotton, was released unconditionally. Mr. Crisp, after importunity, was paroled. About this time, Solomond [sic], one of the citizens arrested, asked permission to go and get a blanket, and escaped. This so exasperated Captain Faulkner, the commander of the Confederate forces, that he declined to release any more of the prisoners.
The Confederates hunted up all the cotton in Brownsville, and made the citizens assist in cutting open the bales, after which the torch was applied and all of it consumed. There were some three hundred bales of cotton consumed at Brownsville.
The Confederates broke open an iron safe belonging to Greenwald, and took away about fifteen thousand dollars in gold! [sic]
The Confederate force at Brownsville was a part of Jackson's cavalry, and are from Kentucky. They wore no uniforms. They are armed with double-barralled [sic] shot guns, Navy six shooter and bowie knives. They are said to have their hiding place or stronghold in a "hurricane" not far from Brownsville. This place is almost impassable from the number of trees thrown upon the ground, and gives them a great advantage in case of attack.
The citizens sent word to the Federal commander at Humboldt, and about 5 o'clock some 85 or 100 cavalry made their appearance in the town. They arrested one man attached to the Confederate force, and threatened to shoot him if he did not convey them to Faulkner's headquarters.
The Confederates left Brownsville Friday (25th) afternoon, taking Mr. Greenwald and the other prisoners with them. On Sunday (27th) Mr. Greenwald was seen as a prisoner at Senatobia, Mississippi.
Memphis Bulletin, July 30, 1862.
25, Guerrilla attack near Memphis
The Rebel Desperadoes-More Cotton Burning. – The adjoining country is yet infested with those infamous bands of prowling, outrageous, notoriously vile and desperate characters, the very thought of whose savage, villainous acts and diabolical proceedings bring a scowl of indignation to the brow. We are informed that the day before yesterday a squad of rebel cavalry attacked a citizen named Moore, on the Holly Springs road, about six miles from the city, near I. B. Holmes' plantation. Mr. Moore lives in that vicinity, and was coming to the city with a load of cotton, when the infernal rebels came upon him. They burnt the cotton on the spot, took Mr. Moore and his team with them, and, probably, ere this, the poor man has been executed by the accursed villains. The neighborhood in which this hellish transaction occurred is a hot-bed of Secessionism [sic], where the Confederate outlaws are harbored and protected, encouraged and aided in this work of devastation and ruin. The few good citizens who reside in that rebellious region live in fear and peril, not knowing what unfortunate moment the desperadoes may fall upon them with their atrocious designs. Let the country be ransacked, and the rebel sympathizers arrested, for they are as deep in guilt as the actual perpetrators.
Memphis Union Appeal, July 27, 1862.
25, Skirmish at Clinton Ferry
JULY 25, 1862.-Skirmish at Clinton Ferry, Tenn.
Report of Assistant Adjutant-Gen. H. L. Clay, C. S. Army.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., July 25, 1862.
COL.: Capt. Blalock, commanding company of cavalry at Clinton, reports that at sunrise this morning his pickets at the ferry were fired upon by the enemy. He sent re-enforcements, when a skirmish occurred, resulting in the wounding of one man. Believing he was about being surrounded he retreated.
The major-general commanding directs me to give you the report of Capt. Blalock, and suggests that the enemy may be a foraging party. If they cross the river you will move your brigade promptly forward and drive them back. You will be supported in the movement by Col. Taylor's brigade.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Col. A. W. REYNOLDS, Cmdg. Fourth Brigade.
(NOTE.-Similar letter to Col. T. H. Taylor, commanding Fifth Brigade.)
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. I, p. 829.
25, General Orders, No. 64, suspending the use of gold and silver as a medium with which to purchase cotton
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 64. HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Corinth, Miss., July 25, 1862.
The attention of the major-general commanding having been called to the fact of persons in this district sympathizing with the rebellion, who have cotton for sale, refusing to receive the United States Treasury notes in payment therefore, or anything other than gold and silver which is paid them by speculators whose love of gain is greater than their love of country, and the gold and silver thus paid indirectly affording aid and comfort to the enemy, renders necessary the publication of the following orders: 1st. From and after the 1st of August, 1862, gold and silver will not be paid within this district by speculators for the products of the rebel States. United States Treasury notes are a legal tender in all cases, and when refused the parties refusing them will be arrested, and such of their crops as are not actually required for the subsistence of their families, stock, &c., may be seized and sold by the nearest quartermaster for the benefit of whom it may concern.
2d. Money so received will be accounted for by the officer receiving it on his next account current, and used for the benefit of Government, only to be paid to the owners of the crops sold on orders from authority above that of district commanders.
3d. Any speculator paying out gold and silver in violation of this order will be arrested and sent North, and the property so purchased seized and turned over to the proper department for the benefit of the Government.
4th. A strict enforcement of this order is enjoined upon all officers in this district.
By command of Maj. Gen. U. S. Grant
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 123.
25, Conditions in Memphis, excerpts from the report of Major-General William T. Sherman
HDQRS. FIFTH DIVISION, ARMY OF THE TENNESSEE, Memphis, July 25, 1862.
Col. JOHN A. RAWLINS, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Corinth, Miss.:
* * * *
Not knowing the character of country about Memphis as to water, for which our men and animals suffered much, I rode into the city on Sunday morning before daylight.. Accordingly I sent orders out to White's Station for the troops to march in, and accordingly the whole command marched into Memphis, my division taking post at Fort Pickering and Hurlbut's just below the fort, drawing water out of the river.
* * * *
As soon as Gen. Hovey drew in his pickets I sent a brigade (Morgan L. Smith's) out on the State Line road 3 miles, with orders to establish a main guard 1 mile farther out, and pickets and vedettes extending another mile, and cavalry to scout and patrol out to White's Station, 9 miles out. I quartered two brigades inside of Fort Pickering, with orders to push the work on which they are now engaged. About 750 negroes [sic] and all soldiers who are under punishment or are arrested by the provost guard will be made to work on the fortifications.
* * * *
On my arrival I was somewhat embarrassed by an order (No. 1) of Gen. Hovey, in regard to persons between the ages of eighteen and forty-five. I doubted the propriety of allowing such to go South, untrammeled by even a parole, whereas they are by the law of the Confederacy conscript soldiers and have doubtless gone to the army. Such should have been made to take a parole and then go South or North.
All in Memphis who are hostile to us should be compelled to leave, for so long as they remain correspondence will go on; and in case of military movements they will manage to convey the information to their friends. But if all who are not our friends are expelled from Memphis but few will be left. I will do nothing hastily; only if any persons manifest any active hostility I will deal with them summarily.
Your orders that when the head of a family is in the South the family too must go I will enforce. And I have said that when any man feels and entertains hostility to us and favor to our enemies it is a breach of honor to remain, and shall, if necessary, be so regarded.
I have issued an order limiting travel to daylight and to the five principal roads, on each of which I will post a small permanent guard, with nothing to do but watch the travel. By giving special instruction to these guards I am satisfied we can protect ourselves against spies and illicit trade more perfectly than by the usual system of provost-marshal passes.
I have, pursuant to your order, ordered the quartermaster to employ a suitable agent to take possession of all vacant buildings, register them and rent them for account of whom it may concern, keeping a true account current with each piece of property and accounting for rents to the quartermaster. I have also had all the negroes [sic] registered and will cause a time-table to be kept of their work, so that this matter may also admit of final settlement. There are squads of guerrillas in the country, but I cannot hear of any real force. A negro [sic] reports the arrival at Germantown of about 100 infantry and some cavalry. At soon as I get things in good shape I will begin to look into these matters.
What about Fort Pillow, its guns, &c.? Do you expect me to remove these and dismantle the fort?
* * * *
I am, &c.,
W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 121-123.
25, Federal anti-Semitism and cotton-buying in the Bolivar environs
BOLIVAR, July 25, 1862.
Maj. Gen. JOHN A. McCLERNAND:
The cotton speculators are quite clamorous for aid in getting their cotton away from Middleburg, Hickory Valley, &c., and offer to pay liberally for the service. I think I can bring it away with safety, and make it pay to the Government. As some of the Jew owners have as good as stolen the cotton from the planters, I have no conscientious scruples in making them pay liberally for getting it away.
L. F. ROSS, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 120.
25, Federals ordered to occupy Fayetteville
FAYETTEVILLE, TENN., July 25, 1863.
Col. LONG, Cmdg. Second Brigade, Second Division, Cavalry:
Maj.-Gen. Sanely directs that you immediately move your command to this place, and occupy it until further orders, and directs you to send the battalion of the Fourth Regulars now in your command to report fortheith to their regiment at Salem. I am ordered with my command to Salem, to intercept Gen. Forrest some place this did of the Tennessee River. I will march at 3 a. m. to-morrow. I have ordered the colonel of the First Ohio to remain here in possession of the town until you arrive, with his regiment and detachment belonging to the different regiments of your command, numbering near 300. I think it advisable for you to move early in the morning for this point direct. Your provision train awaits your arrival here.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
ROBT. B. MITCHELL, Brig.-Gen.
WINCHESTER, July 25, 1863.
In anticipation of Forrest's move, I have ordered Mitchell to Salem and Long to Fayetteville. Will start at once to Nashville. Any orders you have please send to Maj. Sinclair, at Winchester. Have ordered Mitchell to take command of all the cavalry. Bragg occupies the railroad all the way to Atlanta.
No word from Long yet. Have cavalry hunting bushwhackers on Elk River.
D. S. STANLEY, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 558.
25, Forrest's cavalry conducts foraging expedition in Sequatchie County
WINCHESTER, TENN., July 25, 1863.
Communication from Gen. Van Cleve, just received, in substance reports that Forrest is preparing for a raid on McMinnville; needs cavalry. Conscripts and deserters, and many citizens, heretofore rank secessionists, are coming in daily. Says some old sinners of pride wish me to send an armed force and bring them in, that they may not appear to have yielded voluntarily.
Word from Sequatchie Valley, evening of 22d, by a man who lives 9 miles above Dunlap: Saw 50 of Forrest's pickets in the valley on the 21st, and 12 miles from Chattanooga; saw 400 cavalry arming; about 1,600 head of cattle toward Chattanooga.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 556.
25, Army of Tennessee terminates retreat in Chattanooga
HDQRS., Cowan, via Winchester, July 25, 1863--9.30 p. m.
Brig.-Gen. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff:
SIR: The following information is from a rebel lieutenant who delivered himself up at Stevenson, and was forwarded to me:
Bragg and his entire army is in and about Chattanooga. He is fortifying all the surrounding points in and about that City. Gen. Hardee and personal staff was ordered some time ago to report to Gen. Johnston. Gen. A. P. [D. H.] Hill has taken command of Hardee's corps. The pontoon bridge that was at Kelly's Ford is now across the river at Chattanooga, and it is reported that Forrest's command, which was at Waldron's Ridge, north of river has crossed over this bridge to south side, and that Wheeler's force, which was at Trenton, has crossed over to take his place.
The officer has a very accurate sketch of the country between Bridge-port and Chattanooga; also of the river, extending back some considerable distance. I will send you a copy of it. I will also furnish you with a sketch of the different points on which batteries have been erected at Chattanooga. The enemy are fortifying at Knoxville, and Loudon Bridge also.
Bragg's map, now being made, embraces the following points: Chattanooga, Atlanta, Montgomery, Tuscaloosa, Decatur, bounded north by the Tennessee River. I will increase my force at Stevenson and Anderson.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
P. H. SHERIDAN, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 557.
25, Measures taken to decrease deaths of officers in the Army of the Cumberland from Confederate sharpshooters
GENERAL ORDERS, HDQRS. DEPT. OF THE CUMBERLAND, No. 174. Winchester, Tenn., July 25, 1863.
I. In order to prevent the disorganization of the army its officers being picked off by the enemy's sharpshooters, the following badges of rank are recommended and permitted to be worn as undress uniform in all portions of this army when serving in the immediate vicinity of the enemy: Officers of all grades are authorized to wear single-breasted blouses directed in the Army Regulations, for the badges of rank worn on the epaulette. The rectangle of the shoulder-strap being too conspicuous on the field of battle, need not be worn. Second lieutenants will wear a single bar on the right shoulder only.
II. No private horses will be sent beyond the limits of the department without a special permit from the provost-marshal-general.
By command of Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 558.
25, Letter from William F. Testerman, on Remembrance stationery, to Miss Jane Davis. Testerman was a first lieutenant in Company C of the 8th Tennessee Cavalry
Gallotin [sic], Tenn. July 25, 1864.
I again take the opportunity of Droping [sic] you a few lines in answer to your kind letters which I received a few days ago one bearing date June "23" the other June the "24" it was a plesure [sic] to me to have the honor to receive a letter from as charming a young girl as the one whos [sic] name was asscirbed [sic] at the bottom of each of them I was glad to hear that you was well but I was more glad to hear you express your mind as fully as what you did this note leaves me well and I truly hope that this will find you in good health I can't say anything to you by letter more than what you have heard from my letters before. Jane I hope the time will soon come when I can get to see you again I can write many things to you but if I could see you I could tell you more in one minute than I can rite in a week The letters that you wrote to me has proved verry [sic] satisfactory to me if you will stand up to what you told me in your letters I will be satisfied which I have no reasons to Doubt but what you will but if you was to fail it would allmost [sic] break my heart for you are the girl that I am Depending upon and if it was not for you I would not be riting [sic]by my candle to night as you wrote to me that many miles seperated [sic] us in person if my heart was like yours we would be united in heart you kneed [sic] not to Dout [sic] [.] Though we are fare apart at present my heart is with you every moment for I often think of you when you are asleep when Travailing the lonesom [sic] roads in middle Tenn [sic] The thought of your sweet smiles is all the company I have I trust that you are cinsere [sic] in what you have wrote to me. Your sparkling blue eys [sic] and rosey [sic] red cheeks has gaind [sic] my whole efections [sic] I hope for the time to come when we shall meet again then if you are in the notion that I am we can pass off the time in plesure [sic] [.] My time has come for sleep and I must soon close I want you to rite to me as soon as you can for I will be glad to hear from you any time. Direct your letters as before and dont [sic] forget your best friend so I will end my few lines but my love to you has no End remember me as ever your love and friend. Excuse bad riting [sic].
William F. Testerman to Miss Jane Davis
Civil War Love Letters.
25, Military posse in Perry, Wayne, Hardin, Hickman, Williamson and Maury counties
NASHVILLE, TENN., July 25, 1865.
Maj. Gen. JOHN E. SMITH, Memphis:
Send a force of 100 cavalry to hunt down and destroy a band of guerrillas now raiding over the counties of Perry, Wayne, and a portion of Hardin, and who make their headquarters in south part of Hickman County and near Williamsport, in Maury. Your force will remain west of the Tennessee and co-operate with a like force which Gen. Johnson will send out to scout the east of the river.
W. D. WHIPPLE, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 1090.
 The fact that this admonition was printed indicates that the Memphis police demonstrated few of the qualities mentioned in this article.
 As cited in PQCW.
 Also listed in Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
 Maps not included in original report.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456